Database management is the process for managing data that supports the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage and distribution to users and applications and modifying it as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with a specific schema, such as one-to many relationships. It uses the primary key to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about data entities. The most popular kind of database is a relational model developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing data to make it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to change various databases.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are created from generic data in order to improve performance.